Cosman’s commitment to science and education is reflected in our personal involvement in academic research.

The following list of medical publications by Dr. Eric Cosman Jr, PhD, Dr. Eric Cosman Sr, PhD, and Dr. Michael Arnold, PhD, spans every decade from 1970’s to the present, and includes numerous landmark discoveries and advancements in radiofrequency medicine, pain management, neurosurgery, radiosurgery, interventional oncological radiology, surgical guidance, and medical image analysis. Reprints are available upon request.


  1. Cosman ER Jr, Dolensky JR, Hoffman RA. Large Radiofrequency Heat Lesions. Poster session presented at: 21st Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Spine Intervention Society; 2013 Julyl 16-20; New York City, NY, USA.

  2. Cosman ER Jr, Dolensky JR, Hoffman RA. Factors That Affect Radiofrequency Heat Lesion Size. Poster session presented at: Annual  Meeting of the American Academy of Pain Medicine; 2013 April 11-14; Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.

  3. Cosman ER Sr, Cosman ER Jr. Radiofrequency Lesions. In: P. Prithvi Raj and Serdar Erdine, eds. Pain-Relieving Procedures: The Illustrated Guide. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. 2012.

  4. Cosman ER Jr, Gauci CA, Cosman ER Sr. The Physics of Radiofrequency and Pulsed Radiofrequency.  In: Charles Gauci, ed. Manual of RF Techniques (3rd Edition). Ridderkerk, Netherlands: CoMedical BV. 2011.

  5. Cosman ER Sr, Cosman ER Jr. The Physics of Pulsed Radiofrequency.  In: Charles Gauci, ed. Manual of RF Techniques (3rd Edition). Ridderkerk, Netherlands: CoMedical BV. 2011.

  6. Cosman ER Jr, Gonzalez CD. Bipolar Radiofrequency Lesion Geometry: Implications for Palisade Treatment of Sacroiliac Joint Pain. Pain Practice 2011; 11(1): 3-22.  [PDF]  [Pain Practice]  [PubMed]

  7. Cosman ER Sr, Cosman ER Jr, Bove G.  Blockage of Axonal Transmission by Pulsed Radiofrequency Fields.  In: Proceedings of the Society of Neuroscience Conference; 2009 Oct 17-21; Chicago, IL, USA.

  8. Erdine S, Bilir A, Cosman ER, Cosman ER. Ultrastructural Changes in Axons Following Exposure to Pulsed Radiofrequency Fields. Pain Practice 2009; 9(6): 407 – 417.  [PDF]  [Pain Practice]  [PubMed]

  9. Cosman ER Sr, Cosman ER Jr.  Radiofrequency Lesions.  In: Andres M. Lozano, Philip L. Gildenberg, and Ronald R. Tasker, eds. Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery (2nd Edition).  2009.

  10. Cosman ER Sr, Cosman ER Jr.  The Physics of Pulsed Radiofrequency.  In: Charles Gauci, ed. Manual of RF Techniques (2nd Edition).  2008.

  11. Cosman ER Sr. A Comment on the History of the Pulsed Radiofrequency Technique for Pain Therapy Anesthesiology: 2005; 103(6): 1312.

  12. Cosman ER Jr, Cosman ER Sr. Electric and thermal field effects in tissue around radiofrequency electrodes. Pain Medicine 2005; 6(6): 405-424.   [PDF]  [Pain Medicine]  [PubMed]

  13. Higuchi Y, Nashold BS, Sluijter M, Cosman ER Sr, Pearlstein RD. Exposure of the Dorsal Root Ganglion in Rats to Pulsed Radiofrequency Currents Activates Dorsal Horn Lamina I and II Neurons. J Neurosurgery 2002; 50(4): 850-856.

  14. Sluijter ME, Cosman ER, Rittman WJ, Van Kleef M. The effects of pulsed radiofrequency fields applied to the dorsal root ganglion – a preliminary report. The Pain Clinic 1998; 11(2):109-118.

  15. S M Lobo, Z-J Liu, N C Yu, S Humphries, M Ahmed, E R Cosman, R E Lenkinski, W Goldberg, S N Goldberg. RF tumour ablation: computer simulation and mathematical modelling of the effects of electrical and thermal conductivity. International journal of hyperthermia. 06/2005; 21(3):199-213.

  16. S. Nahum Goldberg, Luigi Solbiati, Peter F. Hahn, Eric R. Cosman, Jennifer E. Conrad, Robert Fogle, G. Scott Gazelle. Large-Volume Tissue Ablation with Radio Frequency Using a Clustered, Internally Cooled Electrode Technique: Laboratory and Clinical Experience in Liver Metastases., Vascular and Interventional Radiology 1998; Vol. 209, No. 1.

  17. E. R. Cosman. Radiofrequency Lesions., from Gildenberg and Tasker (eds.), Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery., New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

  18. E. R. Cosman and B. J. Cosman. Radiofrequency Lesion Making in the Nervous System., from Wilkins and Rengachary (eds.) Neurosurgery, Second Edition, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

  19. Y. Kanpolat, E. R. Cosman. Special Radiofrequency Electrode System for Computed Tomography-guided Pain-relieving Procedures. Neurosurgery 1996, 38:600-603, March.

  20. E. R. Cosman, W. J. Rittman, from Huang SKS. (Physical Aspects of Radiofrequency Energy Applications. ed.) Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Basic Concepts and Clinical Applications. Armonk, NY: Futura Publishing Company Inc., 1994.

  21. Blaine S. Nashold, Amr El-Naggar, M. Mawaffah Abdulhak, Janice Ovelmen-Levitt, Eric R. Cosman. Trigeminal Nucleus Caudalis Dorsal Root Entry Zone: A New Surgical Approach. Proceedings of the Meeting of the American Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Pittsburgh, PA., June 16-19,1991. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1992; 59: 45-51.

  22. Impedance Measurements of the Spinal Cord of Man and Animals. J. S. F. Vieira, C. Shieff, B. S. Nashold, Jr., D. E, Bullard, E. R. Cosman, Applied Neurophysiology 1988; 51: 154-163,

  23. E. R. Cosman, W. J. Rittman, B. S. Nashold, T. T. Makachinas. Radiofrequency Lesion Generation and Its Effect on Tissue Impedance. Applied Neurophysiology 1988, 51:230-242.

  24. E. R. Cosman. Advances in CT and NMR Stereotaxic Systems and Related Methods of Radio Frequency and Radiation Therapy. Advanced Technology in Neurosurgery, edited by F. Pluchino and G. Broggi, Springer-Verlag, 1986.

  25. E. R. Cosman and B. J. Cosman. Methods of Making Nervous System Lesions., in Neurosurgery , Vol. 3, pp. 2490-2499, edited by R. H. Wilkins and S. S. Rengachary, McGraw-Hill, 1984.

  26. E. R. Cosman, B. S. Nashold, and J. O. Levitt. Theoretical Aspects of Radio Frequency Heat Lesion Making in the Dorsal Root Entry Zone (DREZ)., Neurosurgery 1984; 15: 945-950.

  27. E. R. Cosman, B. S. Nashold, and P. Bedenbaugh. Stereotaxic Radio Frequency Lesion Making., Applied Neurophysiology, 1983;Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 160-166.  [PDF]

  28. W. D. Tobler, J. M. Tew, E. R. Cosman, J. T. Keller, and B. Quallen. Improved Outcome in the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia by Percutaneous Stereotaxic Rhizotomy with a New, Curved Tip Electrode., Neurosurgery 1983; 12: 313-317.

  29. A. B. Levin and E. R. Cosman. A New Technique for Percutaneous Cordotomies Using a Temperature-Monitored Electrode., in Persistent Pain Vol. 3, pp. 259-264, Editors: S. Lipton and J. Miles, Grune and Stratton (New York), 1981.

  30. A. B. Levin and E. R. Cosman. Thermocouple-Monitored Cordotomy Electrode., Journal of Neurosurgery 1980; 53: 266-268.

  31. B. J. Cosman and E. R. Cosman. Guide to Radio Frequency Lesion Generation in Neurosurgery.  Burlington, MA: Radionics, 1974.

Stereotaxy, Medical Imaging, and Radiosurgery

  1. Cosman ER Jr. Bayesian Population Inference for Effective Connectivity. Ph.D. Thesis, M.I.T.  2005.

  2. Cosman ER Jr, Wells WM III. Bayesian Population Modeling of Effective Connectivity. Information Processing in Medical Imaging (LNCS 3565).  2005; 2: 39-51.

  3. Cosman ER Jr, Fisher JW III, and Wells WM III. Exact MAP Activity Detection In fMRI Using A GLM with an Ising Spatial Prior.  Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (LNCS 3217).  2004: 703-710.

  4. Nain D, Haker S, Grimson WEL, Cosman ER Jr, Wells WM III, Ji H, Kikinis R, Westin CF. Intra-patient Prone to Supine Colon Registration for Synchronized Virtual Colonoscopy. Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention.  2002: 573-580.

  5. Fisher JW III, Cosman ER Jr, Wible C, Wells WM III. Adaptive Entropy Rates for fMRI Time-Series Analysis.  Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention.  2001: 905-912.

  6. Cosman ER Jr.  Rigid Registration of MRI and Biplane Fluoroscopy. M.Eng. Thesis, M.I.T.  2000.

  7. E. R. Cosman. Image-Guided Neurosurgery: The Operating Arm System. from Gildenberg and Tasker (eds. ),Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery., New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

  8. Chen DY, Ramirez G, Bradley, Al-Ali F, Williams ML, Costales, JB, Cosman ER. MRI Localization in Stereotactic Radiosurgery. 1996: Proceedings of the ISMRM, April27-May 3 (New York) 605.

  9. H. M. Kooy, Eric R. Cosman, R. B. Harlan, R. J. Ledoux, M. R. Bellerive, F. L. Hacker, J. H. Killoran, E. G. Mannarino, N. J. Tarbell, E. Alexander, III, D. C. Shrieve, J. S. Loeffler. A Dynamic Collimator System for Conformal Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Radiotherapy (SRT)., Radiosurgery1996; Vol. 1, 276-287.

  10. Philip L. Gildenberg, Robert Ledoux, Eric Cosman, Jeffrey Labuz The Exoscope - A Frame-Based Video/Graphics System for Intraoperative Guidance of Surgical Resection. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1994;63:23-25.

  11. E. R. Cosman, Development and Technical Features of the Cosman-Roberts-Wells (CRW) Stereotactic System, from M. F. Pell and D.G.T. Thomas (eds.) Handbook of Stereotaxy Using the CRW Apparatus. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1994.

  12. Eric R. Cosman, Jan A. Everaert, Robert J. Ledoux, Robert A. Daniels, and MichaelA. Cundari An Operating Arm System for Frameless Neurosurgical Procedures., from A.Mazzoni and M. Sanna (eds.), Skull Base Surgery - Update I, Proceedings of the First Congress of the European Skull Base Society, Amsterdam: Kugler Publications, 1993.

  13. P L Gildenberg, R Ledoux, E. Cosman, J Labuz, The exoscope--a frame-based video/graphics system for intraoperative guidance of surgical resection. Stereotact. Funct Neurosurg. 1994; ;63 (1-4):23.

  14. D Vandermeulen, P Suetens, J Gybels, A Oosterlinck, E R Cosman, T H Wells. Angiographic localizer for the BRW stereotactic system: Applied neurophysiology. 02/1987; 50(1-6):87-91.

  15. E. R. Cosman, T. H. Wells, Jr. Combined Use of a New Target-Centered Arc System with the BRW Floor Stand and Phantom Base for a Wider Range of Approaches and Applications in Stereotaxy of the Head and Neck. to be published in Applied Neurophysiology, 1987; Applied neurophysiology. 02/1987; 50(1-6):119-26.

  16. M. P. Heilbrun, P. M. Sunderland, P. R. McDonald, T. H. Wells, Jr., E. R. Cosman, E. Ganz. Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) Stereotactic Frame Modifications to Accomplish Magnetic Resonant Image (MRI) Guidance in Three Planes: Axial /Coronal /Sagittal., Appl Neurophysiol. 1987; 50 (1-6): 143-52.

  17. T. Wells, E. R. Cosman, R. E. Ball. The Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) Arc, Its Concept as a Spatial Navigation System. Applied neurophysiology. 1987; 50(1-6):127-32.

  18. G. Onik, E. R. Cosman, T. Wells, H. I. Goldberg, A. Moss, R. Kane, S. Moore, P. Stauffer, P. Costello, W. Hoddick. CT Body Stereotaxic System for Placement of Needle Arrays., Int. J. Radiation Oncology, Biol, Phys. 1987, 13: 121-128, January.

  19. G. Onik, E. R. Cosman, T. Wells, Jr., H. I. Goldberg, A. Moss, P. Costello, R. Kane, W. Hoddick. CT Guided Aspirations for the Body: Comparison of Hand Guidance with Stereotaxis., submitted to Journal of Radiology, 1987.

  20. P. Costello, G. Onik, E. R. Cosman. CT Stereotaxic Biopsy of Thoracic Lesion., to be published in Journal of Thoracic Imaging, 1987.

  21. G. Onik, E. R. Cosman, P. Costello, A. Moss, H. Goldberg. New Localizer for Use with CT Guided Biopsies. Radiology, 1987.

  22. G Onik, P Costello, E Cosman, T Wells Jr, H Goldberg, A Moss, R Kane, ME Clouse, W Hoddick, S Moore, and al. et. A new body stereotaxic system used to - American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol 146, 1, 163-168.

  23. E. R. Cosman, M. P. Heilbrun, T. H. Wells .A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Localizer for Determining Stereotaxic Targets in Axial, Sagittal, or Coronal Scan Planes., Surgery of the Third Ventricle, Editor: M. Apuzzo, Publisher: William and Wilkins (Baltimore), 1986.

  24. G Onik, E R Cosman, T Wells, A A Moss, H I Goldberg, P Costello. CT body stereotaxic instrument for percutaneous biopsy and other interventive procedures: phantom studies.: Investigative radiology. 09/1985; 20(5):525-30.

  25. G. Onik, E. R. Cosman, T. Wells, H. I. Goldberg, A. Moss, P. Costello, R. Kane, and M. Clouse. CT Body Stereotaxic: An Aid for CT Guided Biopsies. to be published in American Journal of Reontgenology 1985.

  26. E. R. Cosman, T. Wells, A. A. Moss, H. I. Goldberg, and P. Costello. CT Body Stereotaxic Instrument for Percutaneous Biopsy and Other Interventive Procedures Phantom Studies. G. M. Onik. Investigative Radiology, 1985; 20 No. 4: 525-530.

  27. K. W. Swann and E. R. Cosman. Modification of the Richmond Subarachnoid Screw for Monitoring of Intracranial Pressure: Improvements in Accuracy of Placement and Mechanical Stability. Technical Note, Journal of Neurosurgery 1984; 60: 1102-1103.

  28. P. H. Chapman, E. R. Cosman, and M. A. Arnold. Telemetric Intracranial Pressure Monitoring After Surgery for Posterior Fossa and Third Ventricular Tumors., Journal of Neurosurgery, 1984; 60: 649-651.

  29. A. C. Higgins, B. S. Nashold, E. R Cosman. Stereotaxic Evacuation of Primary Intracerebral Hematomas: New Instrumentation., Applied Neurophysiology 1982; 45: 438-442.

Intracranial Pressure Monitoring

  1. P. H. Chapman, R. Griebel, E. R. Cosman, M. A. Arnold. The Effect of Position on Ventricular Pressure in Shunted and Unshunted Individuals. A Telemetric Study., Intracranial Pressure VI, Editors: M. Brock, et al, Springer-Verlag, 1986.

  2. P. H. Chapman, E. R. Cosman, and M. A. Arnold. Telemetric ICP Monitoring after Surgery for Posterior Fossa and Third Ventricular Tumors., Annual Review of Hydrocephalus, pg. 45, Ed.: S. Matsumoto, K. Sato, N. Tamaki, and S. Oi, Neuron Publishing Co. (Tokyo), 1985.

  3. P. A. Chapman, R. Briebel, E. R. Cosman, M. Arnold. ICP Measurements in Normal and Shunted Hydrocephalus Patients. Concepts in Pediatric Neurosurgery, pp. 115-132, Editor: P. H. Chapman, Publisher: Karger (New York), 1985.

  4. P. H. Chapman, N. T. Zervas, and E. R. Cosman. Experience in Telemetric Pressure Measurements in Shunt Systems., in Concepts in Pediatric Neurosurgery, Vol. 1, pp. 120-128, Karger (New York), 1981.

  5. N. T. Zervas, P. H. Chapman, E. R. Cosman. A Pressure Balanced Radio Telemetric ICP Sensor for Long-Term ICP Monitoring. Intracranial Pressure IV, pp. 436-437. Editors: K. Shulman, A. Marmarou, J. D. Miller, D. P. Becker, C. M. Hochwald, and M. Brock. Springer Verlag, New York, 1980.

  6. P. H. Chapman, N. T. Zervas, and E. R. Cosman. A Device for the Telemetric Measurement of Pressure in Shunt Systems., Intracranial Pressure IV (Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Intracranial Pressure, Williamsburg, Virginia, June 10-14,1979), pp. 489-491. Editors: K. Shulman, A. Marmarou, J. D. Miller, D. P. Becker, C M. Hochwald and M. Brock, Springer Verlag, New York, 1980.

  7. E. R. Cosman, N. T. Zervas, P. H. Chapman, B. J. Cosman, and M. A. Arnold A Telemetric Pressure Sensor for Ventricular Shunt Systems., Surgical Neurology 1979; 11: 287-294.

  8. N. T. Zervas, E. R. Cosman, and B. J. Cosman. A Pressure-Balanced Radio-Telemetry System for the Measurement of Intracranial Pressure., Journal of Neurosurgery 1977; 47: 99-911.

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